The move places a legal requirement on Prime Minister Theresa May to seek an extension to Article 50 to prevent a no-deal Brexit.
Peers gave the European Union (Withdrawal) (No 5) Bill an unopposed third reading after just 10 minutes of debate.
And despite Tory MPs pushing every Lords amendment to the bill to a vote when it returned to the Commons, each vote was lost and the bill became law.
The approved Act was rushed to be granted Royal Assent by the Queen’s representative, which Speaker John Bercow confirmed had been granted shortly after 11pm.
The Act places a legal requirement on the Prime Minister to seek an extension to Article 50 to prevent a no-deal Brexit.
A motion will now be tabled tomorrow confirming the extension.
Number 10 tonight confirmed it would read: “That this House agrees for the purposes of section 1 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2019 to the Prime Minister seeking an extension of the period specified in Article 50(3) of the Treaty on European Union to a period ending on 30 June 2019.”
Promoted by Labour’s Yvette Cooper in the Commons, the Bill squeaked through the elected House by just one vote last week.
Tory Brexiteer Sir Bill Cash tonight moved an amendment to prevent the holding of European Parliament elections.
He told MPs: “All over the country there is a firestorm about the fact we could be involved in European elections.
“There are people leaving their own parties over this because they are so completely infuriated about the fact that the arrangements which are under consideration could lead us to this absolutely insane idea of our being involved in European elections.”
Brexit-supporting Tory MP John Redwood (Wokingham) said: “Tonight is another sad night, looking at the way this Parliament is breaking its word and breaking its promises and letting down 17.4 million Leave voters.”
And he said to Labour MPs who support the Bill: “Understand the damage you are doing to this institution.
“Understand the damage you are doing to our democracy, and vote for us to leave the European Union.”
Speaking for the Labour front bench, shadow Brexit minister Paul Blomfield said his party would be accepting all of the Lords amendments to the Bill.
And winding up the debate for the Government, Brexit minister Robin Walker said they would also be accepting them, saying: “Despite our continued opposition to this Bill, its irrelevance and the speed of its passage in haste, we are left with no choice but to improve it, and so I support the amendments before the House this evening that have been passed in the other place.”
Hilary Benn, Labour chairman of the Exiting the European Union Committee, said he would offer his support to the “prevention of a no-deal Brexit Bill”.
It ran into trouble in the Lords last Thursday when opponents tried to block the measure being forced through in just one day.
Labour threatened to keep the Lords sitting all night if necessary but an agreement between Opposition and Government whips stopped that happening with extra time provided today.
Lords leader Baroness Evans of Bowes Park said the Government still opposed the “unnecessary” measure.
Tory former leader Lord Howard of Lympne said: “This appalling piece of legislation is totally misconceived.”
Lord Howard said the “ludicrous” legislation aimed to constrain the Prime Minister’s exercise of the royal prerogative to make decisions on the exit date.
For Labour, Lord Goldsmith warned time was running out and it was critically important an extension was agreed before Friday.
Peers backed amendments to the Bill aimed at promoting legal certainty and avoiding the UK “accidentally” dropping out with no deal if the council came back with a counter proposal.
Another change made clear that nothing in the Bill prevented the Prime Minister from “seeking or agreeing” an extension, provided it was not earlier than May 22.
In the closing stages, Labour former Cabinet minister Lord Robertson of Port Ellen said it was a historic moment.
The UK was on the verge of talks which would determine the future of the country for generations to come and the Bill would play a part in that.
But Tory Lord Framlingham said it was all about “kicking the can down the road” when Britain should be leaving the EU with a “clean break” on Friday.
“This Bill is telling our Prime Minister what to do, a classic case of the tail wagging the dog and of constitutional chaos,” he said.
The Prime Minister is seeking a further Brexit delay to June 30 and EU leaders will discuss this at an emergency summit on Wednesday.
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